SEO Texas, Web Development, Website Designing, SEM, Internet Marketing Killeen, Central Texas
SEO, Networking, Electronic Medical Records, E - Discovery, Litigation Support, IT Consultancy
Centextech
NAVIGATION - SEARCH

Security Concerns Associated With Digital Wallets

Digital wallets are virtual wallets that store financial information and identification documents and allow users to conduct online/offline transactions. Depending on the type of digital wallet, it may contain debit, credit, prepaid, and loyalty card data, as well as personal information like a driver's license, health card, and other identification documents. Cyber criminals can make efforts to get access to this information for monetary benefits.  In order to stay protected, it is important to have in-depth knowledge of the prevailing security risks.

Following is a list of some of the well-known security risks associated with digital wallets:

Attempting to tamper with the application connected to the digital wallet

Backdoor in a mobile payment app allows an attacker to steal login credentials and transfer them to a server controlled by the attacker. This may allow attackers to use information in digital wallet for fraudulent activities.

Exploiting the vulnerabilities of the application connected to the digital wallet

Unauthorized access to mobile payment capability might arise as a result of an attack on mobile payment APIs used for in-app purchases. This may allow attackers to carry out fraudulent transactions.

Theft of bank and credit card accounts linked to the mobile payment app can also lead to fraud. A fraudster might potentially take advantage of flaws in the registration process to add a new mobile device to the user profile and use it to make fraudulent transactions.

Malware/rootkits installation

Rootkit is a serious threat vector that may be used to directly monitor and hijack/alter API requests as they are marshaled to and from the API endpoint connected to the digital wallet. Attackers may manipulate variables in transit, such as payment amounts.

Permissions for gaining access to the device operating system

With the approval of the user, an OS may grant access to particular resources. Even if a program isn't malicious, having certain permissions might allow it to access sensitive information which can be utilized by another app to get unauthorised access to information stored in the digital wallet installed on the device.

Verifying identities of users

On a stolen device, if a hacker is able to circumvent biometric authentication, user’s complete financial/ payment information would be compromised and payments can be made. In some cases, users may authorize payments by just inputting the lock screen pattern on a mobile phone. Because this information can be easily accessed by eavesdropping, it might encourage opportunistic attackers to hijack a device and make payments on the victim’s behalf.

Payments that are illegitimate

If the card issuer’s terms and conditions are not followed, the issuer may refuse to take culpability for fraud.

Payment transaction accountability

To make a payment, the providers demand fingerprint authentication. There have been instances where fingerprint authentication has been bypassed or compromised on mobile devices. Also, when several users have access to the device, accountability is compromised and it might be difficult to identify the individual who made the payment.

Stolen equipment has a larger attack surface

If a device connected to a digital wallet is stolen, criminals may be able to acquire access to payment cards.

Phishing and social engineering assaults

As digital wallets become more widely adopted, attackers may be enticed to launch attacks imitating genuine applications to seek credit card details. They may also resort to phishing and social engineering in an attempt to persuade users to provide the information required to carry an attack.

Centex Technologies provides advanced cybersecurity solutions to businesses. For more information, contact Centex Technologies at Killeen (254) 213 - 4740, Dallas (972) 375 - 9654, Atlanta (404) 994 - 5074, and Austin (512) 956 – 5454.

Information Security Policy

Since, the evolution of security risks and vulnerabilities is constantly ongoing, compliance requirements have too become increasingly complicated. Many businesses fail to develop a comprehensive security approach to address their concerns. This is why, in terms of cybersecurity, every firm must pay close attention to their information security policies and security posture assessments. 

So, what is an InfoSec (Information Security) policy? 

An information security policy assures that all InfoTech (Information Technology) users within an organization's domain follow the InfoSec principles and advisories. InfoSec policies are created by organizations to protect the data contained in their network systems.

Every organization will need to adopt an information security policy to ensure their staff follows the essential security protocols. InfoSec policy aims to keep data disclosed to authorized recipients on a “need-to-know” basis only. An ideal example of using an InfoSec policy is a data storage facility that holds database records on behalf of a financial institution.

All businesses have confidential information that must not be shared with anyone who isn't authorized. As a result, in order to protect all of their vital data, enterprises must learn about strengthening their information security posture.

An organization's information security policy will only be effective if it is updated on a regular basis to reflect any changes that occur inside the organization. Such, malicious changes or modifications could include: 

  1. Emergence of new cyber-attacks and hackers
  2. Evolution of existing cyber-attacks and hackers
  3. Investigations and analysis of existing cyber incidents
  4. Resolutions and remediation done after prior data breaches
  5. Other modifications that have an impact on the vulnerabilities in security posture

It's critical to improve the data security in any network infrastructure by making it enforceable and resilient to malicious cyber incidents breaches. An effective information security strategy should address urgent issues that occur from any department inside the company. In addition, information security rules should always represent a company's risk appetite, risk impact and security management attitude. This policy lays down the groundwork for establishing a control system that safeguards the company from both external and internal dangers.

4 noteworthy characteristics of any information security policy

The most significant factors to consider when developing an information security policy are: - 

#1. The purpose of the information security policy

Information security policies are created for a variety of reasons. The protection of company’s sensitive data and network systems is one of the most important factors. Organizations must adopt a comprehensive strategy to maintain the security of the data and information stored in their systems. Data security, network security, infrastructure security, endpdoint security, perimeter security and likewise are a part of cyber security strategy. To retain the company’s credibility, reputation in the market as well as respect consumers’ rights, every organization must develop an information security policy. This policy also includes how to respond to queries and complaints regarding non-compliance of the regulatory standards. 

#2. End-goals for adopting the information security policy

The business and its leadership should agree on clear objectives as a group and not as individuals. The first goal the executives should establish is the Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability of data and systems nicknamed as CIA Triad. Although employees should have access to data when necessary, essential data assets should only be accessible to a few top-tier personnel in the firm. Integrity refers to the fact that data should be complete and accurate. Executives can extend the CIA triad by also including Authentication, Authorization and Non-repudiation making it CIA-AAN. 

#3. Data categorization according to sensitivity in the information security policy

Employees with lesser clearance levels should not be able to access sensitive data A strong RBAC (Role Based Access Contol) must be enforced within the information security policy. Data organization will aid in the identification and protection of key data, as well as the avoidance of unnecessary security measures for irrelevant data.

#4. The demographic target of the information security policy

The target audience for an information security policy is determined first and foremost. In the policy's scope, leadership executives can describe what employees' responsibilities are based on their hierarchy and job descriptions.

For more information about Information Security policies and methods to mitigate cyber-attacks, contact Centex Technologies at Killeen (254) 213-4740, Dallas (972) 375-9654, Atlanta (404) 994-5074, and Austin (512) 956-5454

 

 

What Is Man In The Browser Attack?

MitB (Man-in-the-Browser) attacks are variants of MitM (Man-in-the-Middle) attacks in which an attacker compromises a user's Web browser in order to eavesdrop, steal data, and/or interfere with a user session. MitB is regularly used by attackers to perform different financial scams, the most prevalent of which being interfering with online banking systems.

Adversaries can use security holes and/or modify built-in browser capabilities to change content, shift behaviors, and intercept data in order to damage the browser. The attack may be carried out with a variety of malware, the most common of which is a Trojan.

MitB malware / attack campaigns targeting online banking and other internet services include Zeus, Spyeye, Bugat, Carberp, Silon, and Tatanga. MitB attacks, also known as man-in-the-mobile attacks, can occur on mobile devices. Two well-known Mit Mobile hacks are ZitMo (Zeus-in-the-Mobile) and SpitMo (Spyeye-in-the-Mobile).

How do MitB attackers use proxy trojans to target their victims?

A proxy trojan is a type of Trojan horse that is meant to function as a proxy server on the victim's computer. It may intercept all requests to the legitimate programme, like as the victim's Web browser, and determine whether or not it can handle them. If it is unable to process a query, it forwards the request to the real application code. The attacker now has complete control of the victim's computer and can do almost anything with it. Some MitB variants contain the ability to act as a proxy trojan.

MitB hackers taking huge advantage of clickjacking vulnerabilities on webpages

When a hacker employs malicious code included in a webpage to trick a user into clicking on something other than what the user expects, this is known as clickjacking. It is most commonly used on eCommerce sites to entice users to click on links or images. These fraudulent links take users to another commerce site, which might be a competitor's portal or a phishing site.

 Why installing a trojan horse required for a successful MitB attack?

Because a MitB attack requires the installation of Trojan software on the target system, attackers utilise a variety of phishing tactics to convince their victims to comply. The attacker gains access to all of the user's internet destinations after the Trojan Horse has infected the system. Many Trojans designed for MitB attacks can then generate code for additional input forms. These input forms are subsequently shown on the websites that the visitor visits. As a result, attackers can gather a wide variety of personal information.

How is MitB carried out in any browser?

MitB attacks are launched via a user script, a Browser Helper Object (BHO), or an unprotected browser plugin. The virus enables the creator to circumvent the web browser's security features. The trojan then facilitates the interception of calls between the user and the website they are viewing. The trojan has the ability to conduct the following activities in particular:

  1. Modify or add new columns and fields to your website.
  2. Modify financial transaction data such as account and purchase information.
  3. Suspend or seize an ongoing transaction in real time.
  4. Modify the style and feel of a website
  5. Modify the server responses, such as thank-you pages
  6. Capture information put into webpage fields
  7. The entire transaction may also be altered if the user returns to the website.

How Boy-in-the-Browser attacks differ from Man-in-the-Browser attacks?

BitB (Boy-in-the-Browser) attacks utilise malware to change the network routing tables of victims' devices, allowing a standard MitM attack to be carried out. Once the routing modifications are implemented, the virus may attempt to delete itself in order to conceal its tracks and make detection more difficult.

Centex Technologies offers online portals and businesses comprehensive web development and cybersecurity solutions. Call Centex Technologies at (855) 375-9654 for additional information on how to safeguard your website.

What Is Business Constraint Bypass Vulnerability?

While a lot of attention is paid to technical vulnerabilities such as SQL injection, CSRF, and cross site scripting, modern applications are equally susceptible to business logic flaws. As business logic flaws can defy easy categorization, discovering these flaws can be difficult. Business constraint bypass vulnerability is a unique case of business logic vulnerability.

In order to understand business constraint bypass vulnerability, let us take a simple example. Let us consider a website that provides information about top cyber security software. The users may be able to read top three results as a free version but they are required to either pay or subscribe to access complete information.

Business constraint bypass attack tries to circumvent the constraints set by the website to retrieve as much information as possible. Even if the attack is not able to access the information unlawfully, the attack might cause small application based Denial of Service (DoS) attack. In case the attacker is able to distribute the attack, it may result in a DDoS attack.

How Is Business Constraint Attack Launched?

Launching a business constraint attack is a stepwise process.

  • Recon: The first step is to find a parameter that can be modified to return more data than allowed. For example, if a page shows 10 results and the only way to load more results is to go to ‘Next Page’ of the app or website; this can be used as a candidate for bypass constraint attack by cyber criminals. In modern applications, when a user requests data, an API request is called for n values of data (where n is allowed value of data that can be accessed in return of the request).
  • Exploitation: Once target API call is identified, the motive is to attack the variable ‘n’. If the call is coded to return 10 results, it may look like /api/v1/get_books/10/site/all_books. The hackers execute this call in a new browser or by using cURL to check if it returns data. If yes, they modify the number (10 in this case) to their desired number to fetch more data or results.

How To Remediate Business Constraint Attack?

  • An API call may be designed to be invisible to the user, but it is not invisible to everyone and can be manipulated. So, always check the data being requested by API.
  • To make an API dynamic in nature, make sure to either limit it by user or use-case, including the session in request.

For more information on business constraint bypass vulnerability, contact Centex Technologies at (254) 213 – 4740.

What Are Deepfakes And Why Are They Dangerous?

Deepfake is a type of artificial intelligence created by combining the phrases deep learning and fake that facilitates in developing videos that have been fabricated via using deep learning techniques. It is a subset of AI that refers to algorithms that can learn and make intelligent judgments without human intervention. A deep-learning system can create convincing impersonations by examining images and videos of a target person from various perspectives and then copying their behavior and voice patterns. Once a prototype fake has been created, GANs (Generative Adversarial Networks) are used to make it more credible. The GANs method aims to find faults in the system and make adjustments to fix them.

How can you stay away from deepfake videos?

  1. Deepfake videos are much simpler to spot than deepfake photographs. And you may accomplish so with the assistance of two factors. When a deepfake video of a person is created, for example, there is little difference between the person and the backdrop. However, you may spot a false video if the attention is solely on the face in the video and the surrounding is purposefully obscured.
  2. Deepfake can be easily avoided by restricting personal images on social media and avoiding close-up photos of your face as much as possible.
  3. Advanced artificial intelligence algorithms are under development which can swiftly identify deepfake videos thereby preventing people from falling prey to fake news and fake films.

When and where did deepfake start?

Deep Fake was a user on Reddit in 2017 who began employing face modification technology for pornography. It was from here that the term Deepfake was coined, and videos like this were known as Deepfake Videos. 

Deepfake as a boon to technology

MyHeritage, a software program, has been in the headlines for transforming any image into a 10-second movie. With this app, you may also breathe new life into old images using this program. With the use of this program, images of prominent personalities from past were transformed into movies. And these films show that if Artificial Intelligence is applied correctly, this approach may be beneficial to humans.

Deepfake as a threat to humanity

A.  Deepfakes were used to subvert democracy in the United States 

Facebook decided to prohibit the use of deep fakes after fake videos of politicians began spreading on social media. They allowed a few loopholes, such as the ability to keep sarcastic films and photos, but distinguishing between satire and agenda-driven content is difficult.

B.  Deepfakes began to be exploited by internet predators 

People began leveraging the ability to substitute anyone's face in an image or video to make pornographic content without their consent. As the deep fake technology allows them to do so by replacing face and expressions; all cybercriminals need is a profile photograph on social media to produce fake material to produce fake videos.

C.  Deepfake to tarnishing reputation of individuals 

A Pennsylvania mom, for example, was prosecuted for harassing cheerleaders at her daughter's school by employing deep fakes. The mother used manipulated recordings to carry out a cyberbullying campaign against girls she viewed as competitors to her daughter.

Deepfakes still continues pushing the digital media envelope where researchers suggest using NFTs (Non-Fungible Tokens) is the most effective strategy to combat deep fake. But NFTs, on the other hand, are still far away from being the standard on blockchains like Ethereum.

To know more about various cyber threats and methods to prevent them, contact Centex Technologies at (972) 375-9654.